Response from Andrew Gabriel Roth, Aramaic scholar and translator of the Khabouris Codex which became the source of the Aramaic English New Testament:
The better question is not "Who is a JEW" because JEW refers to JUDAH and there are 11 other tribes but who is "A HEBREW?" Who is he who has CROSSED OVER IN OBEDIENCE TO YHWH? That means no lineage gets a pass. If a "Jew" commits adultery he is as guilty as a Gentile, but that is NOT for a Gentile to thump his chest in arrogance and assume that he can revoke that which YHWH declared cannot be revoked. A person who does so is condemned by YHWH and no grace will touch him because his sole hope for life after death was a JEWISH HEBREW CARPENTER who said, "Until heaven and earth disappear, not the least stroke of the pen will pass from the Torah until ALL is accomplished". Heaven and earth are still here and so is the double witness of Matthew 5:17-19 and Luke 16:17.
Our Savior was a HEBREW. He had to be to inherit David's throne and fulfill Messianic promises. Again, the prophets didn't talk about a Gospel being fulfilled by a Roman or a Philistine or a Babylonian. If being a HEBREW were only confined to Israel, then how do we explain the ministry of Jonah to Nineveh? How do we explain ALL RACES being judged and perishing in the flood of Noah? What about Melchizedek, Jethro and Job - all righteous and obedient servants ACCORDING TO TORAH and ALL being outside of Israel? Torah and Gospel are the same thing.
Y'shua summarized the Gospels through the Ten Commandments and Deuteronomy 6:4. His disciples like James talk about "the perfect Torah that is liberty", and Paul to Timothy says "ALL Scripture is fit for reproof" including that inconvenient "Torah of the Jews" that the Bereans themselves followed and were praised for following. Rav Shaul kept a nazirite vow, performed circumcison at least once and fasted on Yom Kippur. He had to rush home for Shavuot (Pentecost) and kept Saturday Shabbat 84 times - just in the book of Acts alone. John defined sin as "transgression of the LAW"....Well, that is Torah! And this is 30+ years after the resurrection and 15 years after the events of Acts 15 so we need to dismiss the "new dispensation".... As John says, "the new commandment is the old one that you have had from the beginning".
In Hebrew and Aramaic the word TRANSGRESS means "to go around the law" so the question remains, who do the Torah-less Gentiles want to be? Do they want to CROSS OVER into obedience and lift the curse that is on their heads for daring to question the nationality of YHWH's chosen servants and Savior to the world, or do they want to GO AROUND the covenant, into the broad path that leads to destruction? The choice is, of course, theirs.
And finally, Yeshua said those who kept the commandments of His Father (remember, "my teaching is not my own but Him who sent me") are his brothers, sisters and parents. He was a Hebrew - and so are those who obey him.
Rav Shaul said in Romans 3, "What advantage has the Jew? In every way for they have been entrusted with the oracles of Elohim (God)."
Y'shua and all the NT writers save Luke were Jewish and even Luke may have been a proselyte like Cornelius in Acts 10.
YHWH said that Abraham's righteousness came from keeping His "Torah, statutes, judgments and laws" (Genesis 26:5). Abraham's faith was justified by his works and it also works the other way. Until Abraham showed his willingness to obey YHWH with respect to his son Isaac, he didn't get the full blessings. He bound Isaac because of his faith that YHWH would raise him from the dead to fulfill his other promise. Faith and works go together.
Ephesians 2:11-16 makes it clear that Gentiles become grafted into the COMMONWEALTH of Israel. Romans 11, especially verse 25 talks about how, even if some Jews are made enemies of the Gospel that all of them will be saved. As is stated clearly there "Elohim's promises ARE IRREVOCABLE."
Many hate "the Jews" including many Christians. Before anyone can curse Israel as Balaam did and bring destruction on to his head, they need to understand that Abraham was BORN A GENTILE and BECAME a Hebrew. Abraham was born in Ur of the Chaldees - Babylon. He lived as a Babylonian for 75 years, becoming "exalted father" Abram of his tribe. Later YHWH changed his name from exalted father to "AbraHAM" - father of MANY nations, because all the world is blessed through him, but not if they curse his descendants.
There is a day, however, at the end of Genesis 11 but before the beginning of Genesis 12, where Abram goes to bed a Chaldean and wakes up a Hebrew. Why? Because he heard YHWH's voice and began obeying it. HEBREW - the word first occurs in Genesis 12:1, means TO CROSS OVER. Abram "crosses over" both phyiscally AND spiritually in his trip to Haran in obedience to YHWH's command. The obedience and the trip go hand in hand and forevermore he is "Abram/Abraham the HEBREW". That means anyone who comes into YHWH's instruction - or Torah, and whether they are "Jewish" or not - becomes a HEBREW.
For those Gentiles who have inherited nothing but lies from their fathers (Jeremiah 16) who don't like this, they are in for some problems because YHWH NEVER made ANY covenant with Gentiles. EVER. ("Jews" has become an all-encompassing term that originated from the word "Yehudah" who was one of Jacob's sons. There were no "Jews" until Jacob begat a son who became the Tribe of Yehudah. People weren't actually labeled until Abraham when it became an "us" (the Hebrews) and "them" (the non-Hebrews who did not believe in the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.)
Jeremiah 31:31-34 talks about a New or Renewed Covenant with the houses of Israel and Judah. There is no covenant with Babylon or with the Assyrians or the Philistines or the Egyptians. YHWH says repeatedly "there is ONE Torah for Jew and for foreigner" and in Exodus 12:38-40 an EREB RAV (mixed multitude) came out of Egypt with Israel. The Hebrew word EREB means "mixing of light and shadow" and can also mean SUNSET for that reason. Therefore these people who were redeemed were of different skin tones and races. That's the only way to express the concept in Hebrew.