An important foreword:
YHWH (most likely pronounced Yah-way) wasn't "cursing" mankind when He gave us rules to live by, as some claim! (Our God doesn't do anything without good reason - and, as a matter of fact, He didn't even number those "613" commandments; MEN did!) These commandments taught man right from wrong and how to live according to HIS Holy Rules, and how to worship Him properly. In short, they were our Divine Instructions for Holy Living!
We must understand, however, that nobody is expected to adhere to "all 613 commands" as most of them were directed at the Levite cohens (priests); some were only for men; some only for women; and some were only for a certain time frame.)
But some were meant to last FOREVER - and those are the ones that believers must pay attention to.
While YHWH eventually recorded ten in stone, we must remember, these ten are just part of the larger picture taken from His Torah which He said would stand forever. Many people balk at this idea because they are under the erroneous impression that they don't even have to bother even keeping the TEN Commandments anymore (let alone the "613"); but, rather, just TWO - and they cite the following as "proof":
Matthew 22:36. "Teacher, which Commandment in Torah is the greatest?" 37. And Y'shua said to him, that "You should love Master YHWH your Elohim with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might and with all your mind." 38. This is the first and the greatest Commandment. 39. And the second is like it. That "You should love your neighbor as yourself." (AENT)
Unfortunately, they stop right there, totally ignoring the next verse, which says: 40. On these two commandments hang Torah and the prophets.
Does verse 40 imply that all of God's original instructions have been done away with? NO! The Torah and the Prophets HANG/ARE DEPENDENT ON those two commands! There's more to it than just "loving God and loving your neighbor!" SIN is still sin and God still expects His people to adhere to His Divine Standards for moral, holy living! So, it is important to note that Torah HANGS on those two commandments. Note also that it doesn't say they REPLACED the Torah!
The thing is, people love to pick and choose and play around with the commandments that were written in stone - such as, for instance, the Fourth Commandment concerning the seventh-day Sabbath. Christianity has decided that the death of Jesus somehow changed YHWH's Seventh Day Sabbath rest to a church event done on Sunday morning (which is mostly based on the writings of what they THINK Paul wrote); which, more often than not, concentrates on bands and entertainment instead of solid Torah teachings (after all, they believe the "law" is considered a curse!)... after which some go home to mow their lawns and clean their houses, or return to the office to catch up on some work....
It seems mankind has always liked to "pick and choose" when it comes to God's Word, but it's time to realize that seventh-day Sabbath command, along with His seven feasts were NEVER abolished ... on the cross, or anywhere else! There were parts of Torah that God said would endure FOREVER.
2 Timothy 3:16. All Scripture that was written by the Spirit is profitable for instruction and for decisive refutation, and for correction, and for deep extensive learning in righteousness; 17. that the man of Elohim may become perfect and complete for every good work.
Where does one find those original 613 commandments? They come straight from the Torah. You can see them sprinkled throughout the Torah in places such as Gen 26:2-5; Ex 15:25-27; Ex 16; Ex 20:6; Lev 22, 26, 27; Num 15, 36; Deut 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31. There are more, but you get the picture: God was very adamant about people following all His teachings and commandments.
Why is it important for us to know about God's original commandments? Everything YHWH tells us to do is important and we are required to follow His orders. As mentioned above, some of the original commands cannot be followed today because they were dealing with the king, the Temple, the priesthood, or living in the Land; some pertained only to the Levite Priests, some only to men, and some only to women.
However, YHWH's "forever" commands (seventh day Sabbath, Biblical Feasts, etc) still stand, and Christians, as part of Israel through the blood of Messiah, MUST do "exactly as the Jews":
Exodus 12:49 The same teaching is to apply equally to the citizen and to the foreigner living among you. (CJB)
Numbers 15:13 "'Everyone who is native-born must do these things in this way when he brings an offering made by fire as an aroma pleasing to the LORD. 14 For the generations to come, whenever an alien or anyone else living among you presents an offering made by fire as an aroma pleasing to the LORD, he must do exactly as you do. 15 The community is to have the same rules for you and for the alien living among you; this is a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. You and the alien shall be the same before the LORD: 16 The same laws and regulations will apply both to you and to the alien living among you.'" (CJB)
Isaiah 56:3 A foreigner joining Adonai should not say,"Adonai will separate me from his people"; likewise the eunuch should not say, "I am only a dried-up tree." 4 For here is what Adonai says: "As for the eunuchs who keep my Shabbats, who choose what pleases me and hold fast to my covenant: 5 in my house, within my walls, I will give them power and a name greater than sons and daughters; I will give him an everlasting name that will not be cut off. 6 "And the foreigners who join themselves to Adonai to serve him, to love the name of Adonai, and to be his workers, all who keep Shabbat and do not profane it, and hold fast to my covenant, 7 I will bring them to my holy mountain and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house will be called a house of prayer for all peoples." 8 Adonai Elohim says, he who gathers Isra’el’s exiles: "There are yet others I will gather, besides those gathered already." (CJB)
Galatians 3:26 For in union with the Messiah, you are all children of God through this trusting faithfulness; 27 because as many of you as were immersed into the Messiah have clothed yourselves with the Messiah, in whom 28 there is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor freeman, neither male nor female; for in union with the Messiah Yeshua, you are all one. 29 Also, if you belong to the Messiah, you are seed of Avraham and heirs according to the promise. (CJB)
Romans 10:10. For the heart that believes in him is made righteous; and the mouth that confess him is restored to life. 11. For the Scripture says: Everyone that believes in him will not be ashamed. 12. And in this, it discriminates neither Jews nor Gentiles. For there is one, Master YHWH, over them all, who is abundantly generous towards every one that calls on him. 13. For everyone that will call on the name of Master YHWH, will have life. (AENT)
 The first time in this Epistle where YHWH (MarYah) is used instead of Elohim/Eloah. This verse indicates the ONENESS of the Malchut Elohim. ONE YHWH, One Kingship and One People. This is a continuum; NOT a drastic change in Covenant, but a renewal of YHWH's people unto Himself.
 MarYah, as opposed to the Greek kurios, can only refer to YHWH, giving Aramaic a huge interpretive advantage. It is a critical fact, as is pointed out here, that Rav Shaul specifically tells believers to call on the name of YHWH, which is certainly not at all represented by the name "Jesus." John 17:11 tells us that the name of Y'shua is of the name YHWH. Before Rav Shaul came to believe, Y'shua had already ascended to the Right Hand of YHWH (Revelation 19:13). Prayer was being offered unto YHWH in the name of Y'shua. Y'shua stated that his mission was to bring glory to His Father YHWH.
Y'shua's name (YHWH is salvation) is accomplishing the salvation of YHWH. It was also prophetic that the Gentiles would come to know the Name of YHWH, according to Jeremiah 16:19-21: "O YHWH, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto you from the ends of the earth and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit. Shall a man make gods unto himself, and they are no gods? Therefore, behold, I will this once cause them to know, I will cause them to know mine hand and my might; and they shall know that my name is YHWH." And, of course, this is to be done according to the Perfect work of Mashiyach!
Some insist that "Torah was only for the Jews", but as we can see from the above, that is not true. The "foreigners" include everyone who has chosen to believe in Yeshua! The Bible tells us God is the same yesterday, today and forever (Hebrews 13:8); that Yeshua is His Divine Messiah whose atoning death redeemed us; and that he and his Apostles and disciples were all Torah observant, seventh day Sabbath and Feast-keeping, kosher Jews. The Bible also tells us that his original followers in the First Century (before Catholicism came to pervert the Word), were all Torah observant, as well. So what supposedly happened to change that? The answer is: Man's opinions got in the way....
Jeremiah 31:32 tells us that YHWH made His "new covenant" with the House of Israel and with the House of Judah; He did not make a "new covenant" with the Gentiles because He did not have an "old covenant" with the Gentiles. He did, however, extend His grace and mercy to the believing Gentiles who, as believers in Yeshua automatically become part of "Israel"! And God told Israel: "I give you good instruction: Do not forsake my Torah" (Proverbs 4:2).
Okay, so how did the "New Covenant" change the way we were to worship? Let's check it out:
Although the COVENANT changed, the following did not:
- YHWH's provisions
- The penalty for disobedience
- YHWH's promises
Psalm 119:89 Your word continues forever, ADONAI, firmly fixed in heaven; 90 your faithfulness though all generations; you established the earth, and it stands, 91 Yes, it stands today, in keeping with your rulings; for all things are your servants. (Stern's Complete Jewish Bible)
So, what HAS changed?
The Steward: Yeshua is now the steward, releasing Moses of that responsibility, and thereby fulfilling the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:
Deuteronomy 18:18 "I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their kinsmen; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I order him. 19 Whoever doesn't listen to my words, which he will speak in my name, will have to account for himself to me. (Stern's)
The Torah written on our hearts: There's more to this than meets the eye! First of all, the Torah is presented and managed (not replaced - YHWH never said He was replacing Torah!) under a new covenant which is written on our hearts via the Ruach haKodesh (Holy Spirit), which fulfills the prophecy of Jeremiah 31:
Jeremiah 31:32 "For this is the covenant I will make with the house of Isra'el after those days," says ADONAI. "I will put my Torah within them and write it on their hearts; I will be their God, and they will be my people." (Stern's)
Also note that "Torah written on our hearts" means that, while we may very well be BORN with it on our hearts, in our human "earth suits" we are NOT aware of it, until we learn to recognize our need for Torah and are willing to follow YHWH's instruction. In order to RECOGNIZE that we have it "written on our hearts," we must continually study Torah and read the Bible from cover to cover!
The priest: Instead of an Aaronic high priest, the high priest is one "after the order of Melchizedek"- Yeshua our Messiah; which fulfills the prophecy of Psalm 110 in which King David wrote:
Psalms 110:1 ADONAI says to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool." 2 ADONAI will send your powerful scepter out from Tziyon, so that you will rule over your enemies around you. 3 On the day your forces mobilize, your people willingly offer themselves in holy splendors from the womb of the dawn; the dew of your youth is yours. 4 ADONAI has sworn it, and he will never retract - "You are a cohen forever, to be compared with Malki-Tzedek." (Stern's)
The sacrifice: Innocent animals were sacrificed under the Mosaic covenant. But, under the new covenant, the blood of Yeshua redeemed us, thus fulfilling the foreshadowing of Psalm 40, which relates to animal sacrifice:
Psalm 40:7 Sacrifices and grain offerings you don't want; burnt offerings and sin offerings you don't demand. Instead, you have given me open ears; 8 so then I said, "Here I am! I'm coming! In the scroll of a book it is written about me. 9 Doing your will, my God, is my joy; your Torah is in my inmost being. (Stern's)
We need to remember, as Paul said, Yeshua offered/martyred himself, and the only way to obtain eternal life is to believe that he IS YHWH's Divine Messiah. When Torah observant believers talk about "walking in Torah" and keeping the feasts, however, people jump to conclusions and accuse of us doing it in order to receive eternal life - which is absolutely NOT true. Man is not "saved" by works alone! We must obey God's Torah because HE commanded it; and because keeping it is what makes us holy/set apart!
Matthew 5:17 "Don't think that I have come to abolish the Torah or the Prophets. I have come not to abolish but to complete. 18 Yes indeed! I tell you that until heaven and earth pass away, not so much as a yud or a stroke will pass from the Torah - not until everything that must happen has happened. 19 So whoever disobeys the least of these mitzvot and teaches others to do so will be called the least in the Kingdom of Heaven. But whoever obeys them and so teaches will be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 20 For I tell you that unless your righteousness is far greater than that of the Torah-teachers and P'rushim, you will certainly not enter the Kingdom of Heaven!" (Stern's)
Psalm 89:33 But I won't withdraw my grace from him or be false to my faithfulness. 34 I will not profane my covenant or change what my lips have spoken. 35 I have sworn by my holiness once and for all; I will not lie to David... (Stern's)
John 14:15 If you love me, you will keep My Commands; (Stern's)
John 14:21 Whoever has my commands and keeps them is the one who loves me, and the one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and reveal myself to him." (Stern's)
Jeremiah 31:33 "For this is the covenant I will make with the house of Isra'el after those days," says ADONAI: "I will put my Torah within them and write it on their hearts; I will be their God, and they will be my people. (Stern's)
Ezekiel 11:19-21 "... I will put a New Spirit in them ... I will give them a heart of flesh, so that they will keep My Laws and respect My Observances and put them into practise. Then shall they be My People ..."
Matthew 5:17 "I tell you solemnly, till heaven and earth disappear, not one little stroke shall disappear from the Law until its purpose is achieved....
Let's also remember Romans 3:31 which says: "Do we then nullify the Law through faith? May it never be! On the contrary, we establish the Law...."
The bottom line is: Yeshua's arrival, and ultimate death on the cross/stake did NOT abolish Torah! He said so, himself. He kept the feasts; he ate only kosher foods; he worshipped in and also taught in synagogues. Everything he did was completely and thoroughly "Jewish" and exactly according to Scripture - and he instructed his disciples to do the same.
So, what exactly were the original 613 commandments? YHWH gave us 248 positive Mitzvot/Commandments ("the Do's"), and 365 negative ones ("the Don'ts"). They are as follows: